1. 10

    There is no falsification before the emergence of a better theory.

  2. 9

    The great scientific achievements are research programmes which can be evaluated in terms of progressive and degenerative problemshifts; and scientific revolutions consist of one research programme superceding (overtaking in progress) another. This methodology offers a new rational reconstruction of science.

  3. 8

    Philosophy of science without history of science is empty; history of science without philosophy of science is blind.

  4. 7

    Intellectual honesty consists in stating the precise conditions under which one will give up one's belief.

  5. 6

    If even in science there is no a way of judging a theory but by assessing the number, faith and vocal energy of its supporters, then this must be even more so in the social sciences: truth lies in power.

  6. 5

    No experimental result can ever kill a theory: any theory can be saved from counterinstances either by some auxiliary hypothesis or by a suitable reinterpretation of its terms.

  7. 4

    Blind commitment to a theory is not an intellectual virtue: it is an intellectual crime.

  8. 3

    The positive heuristic of the programme saves the scientist from becoming confused by the ocean of anomalies.

  9. 2

    It would be wrong to assume that one must stay with a research programme until it has exhausted all its heuristic power, that one must not introduce a rival programme before everybody agrees that the point of degeneration has probably been reached.

  10. 1

    Research programmes, besides their negative heuristic, are also characterized by their positive heuristic.

  11. Last Update: 23 January 2022

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